The Far Eastern Marine Reserve is located in Peter the Great Bay, in the Primorsky Territory. Founded in 1978 to preserve valuable species – the inhabitants of the shelf of the Sea of Japan (about 250 species of fish, numerous invertebrates, about 800 species of algae). The area is 64 316 ha, including approx. 63 000 ha of water area. 9 islands. 3 main plots. The Rimsky-Korsakov Archipelago is a zone of complete conservation, Posiet Bay and Furugelma Island is a reproduction site (trepang, scallop, giant oyster aquaculture), Popova Island is a museum of nature.
The Marine Reserve consists of four sections: three are located in the Khasansky District of the Primorsky Territory, the fourth on Popov Island, in the Pervomaisky District of the city of Vladivostok. Plots of the continental coastal strip, the island and the adjacent water area with a total area of 64316.3 hectares, which is about 10% of the area of Peter the Great Bay, are assigned to the reserve. A marine protective zone 3 miles wide and 500-meter coastal is established around the marine borders of the reserve.
The zone of complete conservation is the largest – the Eastern section (45 thousand hectares of water area and 900 hectares of territory), which includes the islands of Big Pelis, Stenin, Matveev, De-Livron, Hildebrandt, Durnovo, Maksimov’s islets, Entrance, Astafyev, Rocky, kekury Baklanyi, columnar kekur near Cape Sosnovy and kekurs near about. Bolshoi Pelis, the stones of Elizarov, Gorshkov Bay, Middle, Nerpichye, Astaf’eva, Salvation and Telyakovsky.
It is prohibited the removal and introduction of any organisms. In the protection zone of the Medium Bay and the Salvation Bay cordons of the reserve were built, on which the security inspectors live. Researchers invited to the reserve for research works are guests of the “Salvation Bay” and “Medium Bay” cordons.
In the Southern section of the reserve (15 thousand hectares of water area and 200 hectares of territory: Furugelma Island, Vera, Helmersen’s kekur, Bui, Yuzhny, Mihelson, and Butakovo stones, Cape Ostrovik Ostrovy, Kalevala Bay, Sivuchya, Pumzovaya) are allowed by special permission Directorate DVGMZ photo and video, conducting research related to the development of the foundations for the conservation and restoration of marine communities, monitoring and inventory of the population of the reserve.
On the smallest site – Zapadny (3,000 hectares of water area: Sivuchya stones, Minonosok and Cruisers bays), along with the preservation of natural communities, the biological bases of mariculture are being developed, Temp JSC, in agreement with DVGMZ, grows young coastal scallop to replenish and restore natural populations in the reserve and for mariculture farms of Primorsky Krai.
The excursion and educational Northern site occupies 216.3 hectares on Popova Island, a hotel, a nature reserve museum “The Nature of the Sea and its Protection” are open for educational and tourist groups, and an Environmental Education Center is organized. An island botanical garden is being created on the Likander Peninsula, the purpose of which is to preserve coastal vegetation changed in island conditions.
Several permanent security cordons have been created on the territory of DVGMZ; in spring and summer, seasonal points operate on all islands. As a result of increased protection, the number of largha seals in the Eastern and Southern areas increased, the number of gray heron families on Furugelm increased, spawning grounds for seashore, Far Eastern trepang and other animals were revived, and the vegetation of the islands that previously had fishermen and military bases was restored.
In the reserve and its protection zone it is prohibited to take any animals and plants, to pollute the natural environment, to move ships and vehicles, to enter, to live on the coast and on islands. An extensive but buffer zone in the form of the designed Marine Park in the Peter the Great Bay will play a supporting but significant role in the protection of DVGMZ.
The islands of the reserve are its special historical, scientific and aesthetic value. An American ecologist, U. Odum, wrote: “The accessibility and wealth of life on the sea shores led to these areas becoming the most studied part of the continental shelf. There is no such biologist, not to mention amateur naturalists, who would consider his education complete if he did not complete a good “school” by the sea ”.
Ecologists, biologists, nature lovers (environmentalists) of the whole world are building ecosystem models for understanding and predicting global ecological processes. Small in area, closed (micro) and semi-closed (meso) ecosystems are most amenable to modeling, clarifying the flow of matter and energy in them, working out global models. It is these meso-ecosystems that are the small islands of the only Russian Marine Reserve.
In the Marine Reserve there are 11 “large” and small islands with a total area of 1,100 hectares. The largest islands – the Big Pelis, Stenina and Furugelm have an area of up to 400 hectares. It affects the diversity of landscapes. The islands have cliffs, sandy beaches, taiga, subtropical forests, steppes, swamps, fresh streams, and on the Great Pelis and Stenin there are even fresh miniature lakes.
More than 350 species of birds are recorded on the islands and in the protected zone of the reserve. In Russia, there is no such diversity even in the Volga delta. Marine colonial birds here up to 100 thousand ê. The coast and islands of the reserve, freshwater reservoirs of the southern Primorye serve as a resting place, forage and hatching of birds for birds – “migrants”, the number of which reaches several hundred thousand. Birds included in the International and National Red Books live here. Among them are the Japanese and Dahurian cranes, the yellow-crowned heron, the Japanese snipe, the black vulture, the white-tailed eagle and the shoulderless eagle, the golden eagle, and the peregrine falcon.
About 780 species of vascular plants grow on the islands of the Marine Reserve – more than 66% of the families of vascular plants in the Russian Far East. 20 species are listed in the Red Book of Russia. The density of island vegetation is unique – about 8 species / ha. Such a high density of species is not found on the mainland, for comparison, in the “land” Lazovsky Reserve and at the Biological Station of the American Museum of Natural History in Calbflesche (New York) – 1 species / ha. Populations of all island species require special protection, as they are categorized as “relic communities” and are very vulnerable.
Sea islands are the peaks of underwater mountains, which are inhabited by land and freshwater animals and plants, and marine organisms live on the underwater slopes of these mountains (“additional” areas of the shelf). It is obvious that the isolation of the islands determines the uniqueness of their population.
690014, Primorsky Krai, Vladivostok, ul.Palchevskogo, 17
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